Papain an enzyme obtained from the green unripe Carica papaya fruit. The latex yield of papain depends on the growing conditions of the tree. Highest activity of unripe fruits occurs in regions where humidity and sun are constant throughout the year.

  • Some Data for Papain
  • Effective temp: 30-85°C
  • Optimal temp: 65-85°C
  • Deactivation temp: >90°C
  • Effective pH: 4.0-10.0
  • Optimal pH: 7.0-8.0
Endopeptidase Percentage (%)
Papain 5 to 8%
Chymopapain 26 to 30%
Glycyl-endopeptidase 23 to 28%
Caricaine 14 to 26%


Bromelain is the collective name for the enzymes found in stems from the smooth cayenne pineapple variety of the Ananas comosus species. The highest enzyme concentration occurs in the lower parts of mature pineapple plant stems; appreciable quantities are also present in leaves.

Some Data for Bromelain

Effective temp: 40-60°C
Optimal temp: 50-60°C
Deactivation temp: >65°C
Effective pH: 4.0-8.0
Optimal pH: 4.5-5.5


Ficin, an enzyme purified from the latex of the fig tree Ficus glabrata. There are more than 1000 species of Ficus, many of which contain proteolytic activity, sometimes due to the presence of more than one proteinase. The enzyme has broad specificity with the acceptance of hydrophobic amino acid residues in the S2 pocket.

Some Data for Ficin

Effective temp: 35-75°C
Optimal temp: 50-65°C
Deactivation temp: >70°C
Effective pH: 6.0-9.0
Optimal pH: 7.0


Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), is a plant derived enzyme and is extracted from the roots of horseradish and is worldwide used extensively in biochemistry applications.

The main application for HRP in molecular biology and protein research is as a reporter system for immunoassays and other probe-based assay techniques such as ELISA, Western blotting, EMSA and Southern blotting.

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